Current Issue Volume 9, Number 1 , January-June 2017

EDITORIAL
KL Vandana, NB Nagaveni

Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:v-vi]



Artificial Intelligence (AI) sometimes called machine intelligence is the intelligence expressed by machines in contrast to the natural intelligence expressed by humans and animals. From past decades technologies have been developing to mimic the functions of a human brain. In 1950, a breakthrough occurred when a British mathematician, Alan Turing devised a machine to decode encrypted messages.1 In 1956 conference, researchers from Dartmouth College introduced programs that were described as ‘astonishing’ in which computers could learn—checker strategies, solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems and speaking English.2 Later in 1990s, AI began to be used for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and other areas.


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
NM Dhanyakumar, Mannur N Ajit

A Comparative Analysis of Efficacy of Retreating the Root Canal using Rotary Files, in Rotational Motion or Reciprocative Adaptive Motion and Reciprocating Single File System: An In Vitro Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:1-6]



Aim: This experiment was planned, to understand and analyze the efficacy of retreatment with the PTUR files with rotational motion and adaptive motion technology and a single reciprocating file system (Reciproc R50); in an in vitro setup.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four extracted lower 1st molars were equally distributed in three groups of 18 specimens, respectively. Access cavity was prepared, and working length was measured in the mesiobuccal canal with a No.10 K-file. Canal preparation was done using ProTaper Universal files SX-F2. Irrigation was done using 2.5% NaOCl and 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) solution. Obturation was done using ProTaper F2 GP cones with AH Plus sealer by using System-B warm vertical compaction method. Group I-Retreatment with PTUR files D1-D3 in rotary motion; Group II-Retreatment with PTUR files D1-D3 in adaptive motion; Group III-Retreatment with reciproc R50 file in the reciprocating motion. The time taken for retreatment of the canal in each sample in each group was noted. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and were observed under the stereo microscope at 8X magnification. The remaining amount of filling material was calculated on the images as a percentage. Statistics were analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANNOVA) and Tukey post-hoc test.

Results: In the coronal third, the Reciproc R50 file was the most efficient in removing the filling from the canal followed by the ProTaper retreatment files in adaptive motion and then the ProTaper retreatment files in rotary motion with a significant difference according to statistics, between all three groups.
In middle one-third and apical one-third, ProTaper retreatment files in adaptive motion were the most effective in removing root canal filling followed by the reciproc R50 file and then the ProTaper retreatment files in rotary motion with a significant difference between all the three groups. The reciproc R50 files in reciprocating motion took significantly less preparation time compared to the other two groups.

Conclusion: The ProTaper retreatment files with adaptive motion showed the least amount of remaining filling material in the middle and apical one-third of the root canal. The reciproc R50 file with reciprocating motion showed the least amount of residual filling material in the coronal one-third of the root canal. The ProTaper retreatment files with adaptive motion prepared the root canal most rapidly among the three groups.

Keywords: Adaptive motion, Reciprocating motion, Retreatment, Rotary motion, Stereomicroscope.

How to cite this article: Dhanyakumar NM, Ajit MN. A Comparative Analysis of Efficacy of Retreating the Root Canal using Rotary Files, in Rotational Motion or Reciprocative Adaptive Motion and Reciprocating Single File System-An In Vitro Study. CODS J Dent 2017;9(1):1-6.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
NB Nagaveni, P Poornima, Anila Vilsan, Mebin G Mathew, Safina Masroor

Prevalence of Three-rooted Primary Mandibular First Molars in Children of Davangere, Karnataka, India

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:7-9]



Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted primary mandibular first molars in children of Davangere, Karnataka, India.

Materials and methods: Children aged 3 to 10 years, who reported to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, during the period of January to December 2014 were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs of bilateral primary mandibular first molars, obtained from 77 patients, were investigated for the presence of an additional root. A total of 154 primary mandibular first molars were examined.

Results: The total occurrence of three rooted primary mandibular first molar among the study subjects was 1.3%. There was noted an equal distribution among boys and girls (1:1). Both the three rooted primary first molar occurred on the right side with no bilateral occurrence noted.

Conclusion: Primary mandibular first molar can display several anatomical variations, most frequently supernumerary root located distolingually. Hence, pedodontists should be alert in the identification of additional roots and to make necessary treatment modifications.

Clinical significance: An awareness and understanding of the presence of additional roots and unusual root canal morphology are essential as it determines the successful outcome of the endodontic treatment.

Keywords: Primary first mandibular molars, Radix endomolaris, Radix paramolaris, Root anomaly, Three-rooted mandibular molars.

How to cite this article: Nagaveni NB, Poornima P, Vilsan A, Mathew MG, Masroor S. Prevalence of Three-rooted Primary Mandibular First Molars in Children of Davangere, Karnataka, India. CODS J Dent 2017;9(1):7-9.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
RS Basavanna, Vasundhara Shivanna, Juhi Ku Nayak

Evaluation of Dentinal Crack Initiation after Root Canal Preparation Using three Different Nickel Titanium Rotary Instrument: An In vitro Study.

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:10-15]



Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of dentinal crack initiation after root canal preparation using four different nickeltitanium (NiTi) rotary instruments.

Methods: Sixty single-rooted premolars were selected. A total of 15 teeth were left unprepared and served as a negative control; another 25 teeth were instrumented with the ProTaper universal system up to size F2 as a positive control, and the remaining 30 teeth were shaped with the following experimental groups with an apical size 25 file: ProTaper Next X2 and K3XF 25/0.4. Canals were irrigated with 12 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and rinsed with 5 mL of distilled water. All the roots were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex and examined under a stereomicroscope at 25X magnification to determine the presence of cracks. Data were analyzed using Fischer’s exact test.

Results: There was a non-significant difference in the percentage of dentinal crack after biomechanical preparation with NiTi rotary files as compared to the unprepared group except when compared with protaper universal.

Interpretation and conclusion: All NiTi rotary files are capable of initiation of cracks during root canal instrumentation. The maximum percentage of cracks occur in the apical section. The percentage of dentinal crack in the apical section is least in ProTaper Next.

Keywords: Dentinal cracks, ProTaper next, ProTaper universal, K3XF, Root canal instrumentation, Vertical root fracture, Rotary Nickel-Titanium instruments.

How to cite this article: Basavanna RS, Shivanna V, Nayak JK. Evaluation of Dentinal Crack Initiation after Root Canal Preparation Using three Different Nickel Titanium Rotary Instrument: An In Vitro Study. CODS J Dent 2017;9(1):10-15.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Roopa K Thippanna, Vijayalakshmi C Ramu

Prevalence of Dental Attrition and its Severity in Relation to Age and Gender: A Clinical Study

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:16-21]



Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental attrition in different age groups in both the gender among the population of Davangere district.

Need for the study: Early diagnosis, treatment and preventive care of attrition has become an essential and important part of daily practice.Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of dental attrition and its severity in different age groups in both the genders.

Materials and methodology: The present study was conducted randomly among the dentulous or partially edentulous individuals seeking dental treatment for various needs in College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka. A total of 570 subjects were divided into three groups according to different age i.e., young (18-34 years), middle (35-54 years) and old (55 years and above).
Questionnaire and clinical examination was performed personally for each subject. Clinical examination involved the evaluation of individual tooth for attrition and scoring was done using attrition index modified by tooth wear index of Smith and Knight.

Results: The study was carried out on 570 subjects divided into three groups. Subjects in the middle and old age group showed 100% prevalence of attrition and subjects in younger age group showed 91.5% prevalence. Mean attrition score in subjects of young, middle and old age groups were 0.21, 0.82, 1.44 respectively. Mean attrition scores of males and females in all the age groups as 0.99, 0.67 respectively.

Conclusion: Highest prevalence of attrition was seen in both middle and old age compared to younger age. Younger age showed least attrition score involving only enamel compared to older age who showed attrition involving enamel and dentine. As the age advances severity of attrition was also increased. Males showed higher attrition than females. Severity of attrition was also more in males.

Keywords: Attrition, Prevalence of tooth wear, Severity of attrition, Tooth wear.

How to cite this article: Thippanna RK, Ramu VC. Prevalence of Dental Attrition and its Severity in Relation to Age and Gender: A Clinical Study. CODS J Dent 2017;9(1):16-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


REVIEW ARTICLE
Bharath Chandra GNR, KL Vandana

Periodontal Osseous Defects: A Review

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:22-29]



Periodontitis is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontal tissues caused by multi-factorial origin. Among all the characteristic signs of periodontal disease, loss of support from alveolar boneis the one which usually represents theanatomical sequela to the progression of periodontitis apically.The bone loss which is induced by periodontitis occur either single or in different combination forms. The identification of these osseous defects on surgical exposure of bone is clinically challenging as the osseous and it becomes imperative for a clinician to understand these defects and categorize them well to have better therapeutic approaches. Intimate knowledge of all these periodontal osseous defects associated with periodontal disease is essential. So this review is aimed at classification and deep insight which will be helpful for proper diagnosis and treatment of periodontal osseous defects.

Keywords: Alveolar process, Bone resorption, Periodontitis.

How to cite this article: Chandra GNRB, Vandana KL. Periodontal Osseous Defects: A Review. CODS J Dent 2017;9(1):22-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
NB Nagaveni, P Poornima, Shruti Singh, Safina Masroor

Solitary Maxillary Central Incisor along with Mesiodens–Report of a Rare Case with Literature Review

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:30-35]



Dental anomalies of tooth number in development of the permanent dentition are quite common than the primary dentition. However, the combined occurrence of hypodontia and hyperdontia is a rare phenomenon, especially in the same dental arch, congenital absence of maxillary central incisor is still the rarest entity. The purpose of this report is to describe a rare case of a solitary maxillary permanent central incisor in association with labially erupted mesiodens.

Keywords: Agenesis, Mesiodens, Solitary maxillary central incisor.

How to cite this article: Nagaveni NB, Poornima P, Singh S, Masroor S. Solitary Maxillary Central Incisor along with Mesiodens-Report of a Rare Case with Literature Review. CODS J Dent 2017;9(1):30-35.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


CASE REPORT
KL Vandana, Priyanka Dalvi, Neha Mahajan

Idiopathic Gingival Enlargement with Aggressive Periodontitis Treated with Surgical Gingivectomy and 0.2% Hyaluronic Acid Gel (Gengigel®)

[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volumn:9 ] [Number:1] [Pages:40] [Pages No:36-40]



Background: Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is known to be a benign slow growing proliferation of the gingival tissue. It is genetically heterogeneous, associated with syndromes and rarely presents as an isolated disorder. Aggressive periodontitis (AP) is a disorder that results in severe rapid destruction of the tooth-supporting apparatus and is also a genetically transmitted disorder of the periodontium. In the case of gingival enlargement there will be an excessive display of gingiva affecting the esthetic and functional problems. Gingival enlargement in association with generalized AP is very rare.

Case description: A 23-year-old female was reported with a recurrence of gingival enlargement along with generalized tooth mobility. On detailed history, clinical and laboratory findings, it was diagnosed as recurrent idiopathic gingival enlargement with generalized aggressive periodontitis. This patient has been followed up for nearly 9 years ever since she first reported to us in the year 2004 with a similar finding. Treatment included extraction of teeth with a hopeless prognosis, through phase I therapy, local drug delivery of gengigel® 0.2% hyaluronic acid, gingivectomy using electrocautery, follow up visits and prosthetic rehabilitation using a treatment partial denture.

Conclusion: In generalized AP, rapid destruction of periodontal tissues can be prevented by early diagnosis. Also, diagnosis of GAP can be complicated by associated conditions like gingival enlargement. Therefore the diagnosis should be based on complete history radiographical microbiological and clinical findings. The use of local application of agents such as Gengigel ® is recommended to improve the periodontal condition.

Keywords: Aggressive periodontitis, Gingival enlargement, Gingivectomy, Gengigel®, Local drug delivery.

How to cite this article: Vandana KL, Dalvi P, Mahajan N. Idiopathic Gingival Enlargement with Aggressive Periodontitis Treated with Surgical Gingivectomy and 0.2% Hyaluronic Acid Gel (Gengigel®). CODS J Dent 2017;9(1):36-40.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None


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